How to Reference In-Text Harvard Style

In-text citations contain the author’s surname or the name of an organisation followed by the year of publication. You must also include the page number if using a direct quote.

Citing In-text

1.  At the end of the sentence:
  •  Long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person (Youssef 2013).
  •  Research indicates that long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person (Youssef 2013).
2. At the beginning of the sentence:
  • Youssef (2013) argues that long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person.
  • According to Youssef (2013), long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person.

Direct Quotes

A direct quote (the author’s exact words) is usually appropriate when you want to give a precise definition of something or when an author has expressed something in a unique and powerful way. However, your assignment should be written in your own words as much as possible.  For direct quotes, you should use the author’s exact words in single quotation marks and then include page number information.

  • Lee (2007, p. 7) suggests that ‘the fact that yesterday’s seemingly far-fetched hypothetical becomes today’s actual case affirms the value of speculating on imaginary hard cases’.
  • In other words,  ‘the fact that yesterday’s seemingly far-fetched hypothetical becomes today’s actual case affirms the value of speculating on imaginary hard cases’ (Lee 2007, p. 7).