How To Reference In-Text  APA Style

How To Reference In-Text APA Style

In-text citations contain the author’s surname or the name of an organisation followed by the year of publication. You must also include the page number if using a direct quote.

Citing In-text

1.  At the end of the sentence:

  • Long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person (Youssef, 2013).
  • Research indicates that long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person (Youssef, 2013).
  • Young people can be significantly affected through long-term unemployment (Youssef, 2013, as cited in Barlow, 2016).*
 
2.  At the beginning of the sentence:
  • Youssef (2013) argues that long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person.
  • According to Youssef (2013), long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person.
  • Youssef (2013) identified significant effects on youth who are facing ongoing unemployment (as cited in Barlow, 2016).*

 

Direct Quotes

A direct quote is required for when you use the author’s exact words. For direct quotes (less than 40 words) put the author's words in double quotation marks and include the page number.

1.  At the end of the sentence:

  • Therefore, patients who have "had a previous traumatic and painful experience in hospital may discount, distrust or disbelieve messages from the nurse that pain... will be controlled” (Koutoukidis, Stainton, & Hughson, 2017, p. 153).
  • Patients who have had negative experiences of pain in hospital, may "discount, distrust or disbelive messages from the nurse" that it is possible to control pain (Koutoukidis, Stainton, and Hughson, 2017, p. 153, as cited in Thorne, 2017, p. 105).*

2.  At the beginning of the sentence:

  • Kitchener, Jorm, and Kelly (2015) argue that there are several meanings for the term mental health, "some definitions emphasise positive psychological well-being, whereas others see it as the absence of mental health problems” (p. 4).
  • Kitchener, Jorm, and Kelly (2015) suggested that mental health has been variously defined as "psychologically having a sense of positive wellbeing, or not having any problems associated with one's mental health" (as cited in Gildrime, 2016, p. 12).*

* Note that the 6th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) cautions that secondary sources should be used only when the original source is out of print, unavailable, or not available in English.

   More information about primary and secondary sources

   More examples of in-text referencing