How To Reference In-Text  APA Style

How To Reference In-Text APA Style

In-text citations contain the author’s surname or the name of an organisation followed by the year of publication. You must also include the page number if using a direct quote.

Citing In-text

1.  At the end of the sentence:

Long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person (Youssef, 2013).
Research indicates that long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person (Youssef, 2013).
 
2.  At the beginning of the sentence:

Youssef (2013) argues that long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person.

According to Youssef (2013), long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person.

 

Direct Quotes

A direct quote is required for when you use the author’s exact words. For direct quotes (less than 40 words) put the author's words in double quotation marks and include the page number.

1.  At the end of the sentence:

Therefore, patients who have "had a previous traumatic and painful experience in hospital may discount, distrust or disbelieve message from the nurse that pain... will be controlled.” (Koutoukidis, Stainton & Hughson, 2017, p. 153).

2.  At the beginning of the sentence:

Kitchener, Jorm & Kelly (2015) argues that there are several meanings for the term mental health: "some definitions emphasise positive psychological well-being, whereas others see it as the absence of mental health problems.” (p. 4).